The Brazilian winger was sent off in the 42nd minute for elbowing Getafe defender Gaston Alvarez in the head. The incident came after Raphinha had been fouled by Alvarez, but the referee deemed the response to be excessive.
Getafe were also reduced to 10 men in the 57th minute when Jaime Mata was shown a second yellow card for a foul on Ronald Araujo.
Despite playing with a man advantage for the majority of the match, Barcelona were unable to find a breakthrough. Robert Lewandowski came closest to scoring for the visitors, but his header was cleared off the line by Alvarez in the 63rd minute.
Barca manager Xavi Hernandez was also sent off in the 71st minute for complaining about a decision.
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The draw leaves Barcelona with one point from their opening two matches of the season. They will next face Real Sociedad at Camp Nou on August 21.